Pyorrhea is an advanced stage of periodontal disease, where the ligaments and bones that support the teeth become inflamed and infected.
Gum disease usually begins painlessly, so it is not surprising that it is not detected until the condition is at an advanced stage. The first symptoms of pyorrhea are similar to those of gingivitis, as there is a visible change in the gums.
Early signs of pyorrhea are usually detected by the oral health professional, if the pyorrhea If detected in time, a simple treatment is applied, making use of non-surgical procedures such as scaling and root planing, that is, removing plaque and tartar from the deep periodontal pockets by thoroughly cleaning the root surfaces, also smoothing the root of the tooth to completely eliminate both bacteria and viruses.
If the disease is more advanced, it is possible to use surgical treatment. The four most common surgical treatments for pyorrhea include the following:
- Reduction procedure: This treatment is recommended when home oral hygiene and dental visits have not been sufficient to eliminate the bacteria in the periodontal pockets as the infection is on a very deep side.
- Regenerative procedure: This treatment is applied when the bone supporting the teeth is destroyed, and the lost tissue and bone are surgically regenerated.
- Crown lengthening: This treatment is used when the teeth are covered with excessive tissue, new tissue is generated and excess bone tissue is removed to leave the tooth in a natural state.
- Soft tissue grafts: This treatment is applied when the roots of the teeth are exposed, soft tissues are grafted to cover the roots or to make way for the development of tissue if it is absent in the gums.
It is worth mentioning that the best treatment for pyorrhea is prevention. Eliminating bacteria from the mouth is essential to avoid gum infections. Bacteria live in the body and have special purposes to keep the body functioning, however, sometimes these bacteria grow and cause complications, such is the case of bacteria in the mouth, which have an unlimited supply of nutrients in the moist environment of the mouth. Brushing after every meal and flossing along with regular dental care should be sufficient to prevent pyorrhea.
WHAT IS PERIODONTITIS
Periodontitis is a periodontal disease, like gingivitis, characterized by inflammation of the periodontium, i.e. the tissues that support the tooth, including the gum ligament, the periodontal cementum and the alveolar bone.
In order to accurately diagnose the presence of a periodontitis A clinical examination is performed in combination with radiographic examinations, the disease is referred to as such when the tissue is inflamed, which is accompanied by a possible loss of the insertion, to measure the depth of the disease a probe is used that slides between the gum and the tooth.
This disease is associated with alveolar bone loss, since the destruction of the alveolar bone occurred progressively.
The symptoms associated with periodontitis include an inflammation of the gums, i.e. gingivitis associated with bleeding; it is possible to appreciate a loosening of the teeth, since the support of the dental bone loses height, so the tooth looks longer, this is a warning sign for dentists. Symptoms also include abnormal mobility of the teeth, as well as the appearance of what appear to be black holes between the teeth.
As is the case with gingivitis, the main cause of gingivitis is periodontitis is due to the presence of dental plaque, which is formed by bacteria, the periodontitis is a change in the microbial population of the mouth that leads to the formation of inflammatory lesions. This is why plaque removal should be done with good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing.
There are several risk factors that can promote the appearance of periodontal lesions, among these factors are genetic or hereditary factors where abnormalities in the epithelial and connective tissues are detected, as well as a deficiency of alkaline phosphatase which leads to an excessive production of cytokines, i.e. proteins that are responsible for regulating the function of the cells that produce them.
Pregnant women may have a hormonal risk factor, due to the various hormonal changes associated with pregnancy, which can affect both the oral cavity and the periodontium.
Among the environmental factors that favor the appearance of periodontitis is tobacco consumption, since this substance causes a low blood supply to the gums, which influences the appearance of lesions due to the reduction of the immune system.
Periodontitis can be classified into two types:
- Chronic: The most common form of the disease, it can appear at any age but is more common in adults. Its prevalence and severity increase over the years, it is characterized by a frequent presence of tartar and is associated with different types of bacteria.
- Aggressive: It is characterized by the loss of insertion and bone destruction of the tooth, it highlights the abnormality of the phagocytic cells – which are the cells of the immune system – in this type of periodontitis the progression and bone loss can be stopped.
Causes of Pyorrhea
Pyorrhea is an oral condition in which the ligaments and bones that support the teeth become inflamed due to a bacterial infection. It is considered a periodontal disease that in an advanced stage causes bleeding and pus discharge from the gums. In addition, it is the main cause of bad breath as well as the slow erosion of the bone that forms the jaw.
The end result of pyorrhea, if not treated in time, is tooth loss.
As in all diseases, the best way to avoid suffering from pyorrhea is prevention and in order to prevent a disease it is of vital importance to know the causes. It is worth mentioning that the pyorrhea is caused by a variety of reasons, among the most common of which are an increased formation of bacteria in the mouth as a result of inadequate dental hygiene and care; smoking; poor diet, as well as excessive consumption of sugar or foods rich in sugars. A deficiency in folic acid, calcium and niacin is also known to be a cause of this periodontal disease.
Other known causes of pyorrhea that are worth knowing about are:
- Adhesion of food particles on the teeth that were not removed by brushing.
- Drug use.
- Excessive alcohol consumption.
- Vitamin C deficiency.
- Inadequate diet.
- Excessive smoke.
- Bacterial infection.
- Chemical and physical irritants.
- Injuries to the gums and their supporting structures, generally caused by the misuse of toothpicks.
- Incorrect cleaning of the teeth.
- Bad eating habits, and frequent intake of white sugar and bread.
- Health problems.
- Prolonged stress and tension.
- A bad toothbrushing following a wrong path, which instead of cleaning ends up accumulating food residues on the teeth.
- Use of the contraceptive pill.
Given the above, it is possible to identify whether a person is predisposed or has a greater tendency to develop pyorrheaThe general constant is poor oral hygiene and few visits to the dental health professional; but also people who are abusing harmful substances such as alcohol, tobacco and other drugs have a latent tendency to suffer from pyorrheaeven if your oral hygiene is adequate.
Finally, an adequate diet, rich in vitamins and minerals, without excess sugar and flour, can prevent the development of the disease.